Sprintings Functional Muscle Groups

Authored by: gxbOLT

The hamstrings are a group of muscles located on the back of the thigh that are critical for sprinting. They play a crucial role in generating power and speed during a sprint. In this blog post, we’ll take a closer look at the hamstrings and their role in sprinting.



The hamstrings consist of three muscles: the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. They originate at the ischial tuberosity (sit bones) of the pelvis and insert onto the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg. The hamstrings are responsible for hip extension and knee flexion, which are both key movements during sprinting.


During the acceleration phase of a sprint, the hamstrings are responsible for extending the hip as the foot pushes off the ground.


This generates the initial burst of speed needed to propel the body forward. As the hip extends, the knee begins to flex, and the hamstrings start to lengthen.

Once the athlete reaches top speed, the hamstrings continue to play a critical role in maintaining that speed. As the leg swings forward, the hamstrings contract to decelerate the leg, which prepares it for the next stride. This eccentric contraction is essential for preventing injury and maintaining efficient movement patterns.

The hamstrings are also involved in controlling the alignment of the pelvis and hips. During sprinting, the pelvis rotates forward, and the hip on the opposite side of the leg in contact with the ground drops slightly. The hamstrings help to control this motion, which is essential for maintaining stability and preventing injury.


One of the most common injuries among sprinters is a hamstring strain.



This occurs when the muscle fibers are overstretched or torn, typically during the late swing phase of the sprinting motion. Sprinters who have weak or tight hamstrings are at an increased risk for this type of injury. Therefore, it’s essential to incorporate hamstring strengthening exercises into a sprinter’s training program.


In conclusion, the hamstrings are a critical group of muscles for sprinting. They play a vital role in generating power and speed during the acceleration phase, maintaining top speed, and controlling the alignment of the pelvis and hips. Ensuring proper hamstring strength and flexibility is key to preventing injury and maximizing performance in sprinting.